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April 18th, 2011

Eggs Don’t Grow on Trees…or Do They?

nancy-80x80Some curious fruits begin to appear on bushes and trees in Pennsylvania during the Lenten season. They’re most frequently pastel-colored and appear to be, well, plastic.

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That’s because they are plastic. They’re the modern adaptations of a custom that originated with using real blown-out chickens’ eggs to decorate shrubbery outside the home before Easter.

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Some “eggs” are larger than others…

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Historical descriptions of these outdoor decorations suggest that the eggs were undyed at first; later folks began dying them, and finally replaced them with plastic to better withstand the elements (and, one suspects, the wildlife).

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The custom seems to have been practiced among the Pennsylvania Germans since at least the mid-19th century, although not as universally as decorating a Christmas tree. This postcard, postmarked 1907, is remarkably similar to its modern counterpart below:

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A similar custom involves decorating an Easter tree to display inside the house, and this tradition in American does not seem to have come from the Pennsylvania Germans. Historians believe it may have been imported from Germany about a hundred years ago when people copied the indoor trees they saw depicted on Easter greeting cards. (Alas, I have yet to find one of these!)

Then, in 1950, a Pennsylvania author and illustrator named Katherine Milhous wrote a popular book called The Egg Tree, and the practice spread nationwide. Homes throughout the United States began incorporating egg trees into their indoor holiday decorating. Unlike Christmas trees, Easter trees are most often not evergreens but are bare-branched deciduous trees. Sometimes the base is surrounded with a display or “Putz” made of Easter-related figurines, such as rabbits and chicks. This extravaganza, from Allentown in the mid-20th century, showcased more than 1,000 Easter-related items:

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Many of these eggs are painted, gilded, or otherwise decorated. The Pennsylvania Dutch were famous for their onion-skin-dyed eggs, into which they scratched folk art designs. Our photo director is making some of these this week and will post photos on her blog, Christa Snaps. Stay tuned!

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April 11th, 2011

Have You Thanked a Shaker Today?

nancy-80x80When that long-anticipated box arrives from your favorite mail-order seed company this spring, remember to thank the Shakers. I ran across this little pamphlet while sorting through my collection recently, and was reminded of the Shakers’ contribution to the dissemination of seeds and herbal medicines in early 19th-century America:

Cover of a Shaker patent medicine advertising booklet circa 1880

Front cover of a Shaker patent medicine advertising booklet circa 1880

Members of this utopian Christian sect were among the first to package seeds in little envelopes for mass-market sale in retail stores. Officially known as The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, they were commonly called “Shakers” because of their frenetic style of dancing during worship.

The Shakers believed that God was found in the details of one’s work, and they were dedicated gardeners, always growing enough to feed themselves plus extra for the poor. This abundance extended to seeds, as well.

In general stores in New England, New York, Ohio, and Kentucky, beginning in the early 1800s, the “papers” of Shaker seeds were offered for sale in beautiful boxes. Later, the boxes were decorated with colorful lithographed labels, a relatively early use of this marketing tool. You can see examples of the seed boxes at the website of the Shaker Museum and Library in Old Chatham, New York (click on Collections, then the live link in the text).

The back cover of my little booklet shows the Shaker community in Mount Lebanon, Columbia County, New York, as it would have looked in about 1880:

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Back cover of a Shaker patent medicine advertising booklet circa 1880

The Mount Lebanon community was settled in 1787, and the Shakers began growing medicinal herbs to treat their own ailments soon thereafter. Again, they had an overabundance, so they began trading their extra medicinal herbs with doctors in exchange for medicines they could not produce themselves. About 1820, they started selling their herbs, along with medicinal preparations such as extracts and tinctures. In 1849, the Shakers from the Mount Lebanon community sold 8 1/2 tons of prepared herbs. (A photo of some of their medicine packaging is also shown on the Shaker Museum and Library’s website.)

Below is an 1891 trade card from my collection extolling the virtues of Shaker Family Pills, which allegedly included the ability to “stimulate a torpid liver” and thus relieve constipation:

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Advertising trade card dated 1891, showing child in Shaker costume

Also from 1891 is this trade card for Shaker Soothing Plasters, recommended for “Backache, Lumbago, Muscular Rheumatism, all pain and lameness in any part of the body, and every ailment in which an external application is desirable and valuable”:

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Advertising trade card dated 1891

The self-sufficiency of the Shakers is illustrated by this postcard from about 1906 of the community at East Canterbury, New Hampshire. In the background is a water tower and windmill, which allowed them to collect their own rainwater and provide power for their many manufacturing operations:

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The Shaker sect has virtually died out because of its believers’ strict practice of celibacy (in the early years, it maintained its ranks through adoption of orphans). So if you want to thank a Shaker face-to-face these days, you’ll have to travel to New Gloucester, Maine, where the last remaining active colony of Shakers resides. The Sabbathday Lake Shaker Village in New Gloucester welcomes visitors and offers a variety of special events to the public year-round. You’ll find a number of products made from Sabbathday Lake herbs for sale on the website, too.

Museums and demonstration sites that interpret Shaker history and culture are listed below. Enjoy!

KENTUCKY

Shaker Village of Pleasant Hill, Harrodsburg

South Union Shaker Village, Auburn (offers herbal products on its website)

MAINE

Alfred Shaker Museum, Alfred

Sabbathday Lake Shaker Village, Gloucester

MASSACHUSETTS

Fruitlands Museum, Harvard (interprets the history of the Harvard Shakers)

Hancock Shaker Village, Hancock (look for the heirloom seeds for sale on its website)

Shirley Historical Society, Shirley (offers guided tours of the site of the former Shirley Shaker Village, including several original buildings)

NEW HAMPSHIRE

Canterbury Shaker Village, Canterbury (the one shown on my postcard above)

Enfield Shaker Museum, Enfield

NEW YORK

Shaker Heritage Society, Albany (maintains the Watervliet Shaker National Historic District, site of America’s first Shaker settlement)

Shaker Museum and Library, Old Chatham (museum on site of Mount Lebanon Shaker Village, shown on the back of my booklet)

OHIO

Warren County Historical Society, Lebanon (interprets history of Union Village Shakers)

Friends of White Water Shaker Village, Cincinnati

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April 4th, 2011

Catkin Fever

nancy-80x80When I was growing up, a sure sign of spring was a vase of pussy willow branches that my mother had cut from a neighbor’s yard and brought inside to force. I would wait impatiently for the furry gray catkins to emerge, and they never failed to amaze me. They still do.

Willows (Salix species) are plants that every organic gardener should include in the garden. They produce pollen early in the spring, when many beneficials are just emerging, providing protein for pollinating insects. Pussy willows are easy to grow and fun to cut for flower arrangements. Most garden centers will carry pussy willows in spring, or you can root cuttings from a neighbor’s shrub in water.

To force pussy willow branches, wait until the branches have many tight buds on them. Cut each branch on an angle and smash the end of the branch with a hammer (this will help it soak up water). Bring them inside and place in a tall vase.

These images of catkins from my collection of antique paper may inspire you. Enjoy!

The circa-1910 postcard below is the work of German artist Catherine Klein, who was renowned for her paintings of flowers. It was printed in Germany but appears to have a Russian inscription. If anyone out there can translate, please do!

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This Easter postcard, dated 1911, was printed in England:

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Oddly, Lord & Taylor (the department store) used catkins in its Christmas advertising during the 1880s, as this trade card attests:

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More appropriate to catkin season is this German Easter postcard, mailed in 1914:

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