May 7th, 2012
To Market, To Market, Part II

nancy-80x80In last week’s post, I shared some old postcard views of open-air farmers’ markets from the early 20th century. This week, I’ll be highlighting some postcards of old indoor markets. Cities with large open-air markets quickly found that those huge wagons loaded with produce clogging their downtowns could be a major traffic disruption, and the animal and vegetable waste left behind could be a serious sanitation problem. As a result, many cities built dedicated market houses where vendors could set up without worrying about bringing along shelter from the elements, and a staff could be hired to clean up the waste.

Here are a few postcards of indoor markets from my archives.

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My last post included a photo of outdoor vendors at Les Halles in Paris, France. But this market actually got its name from the 12 grand glass-enclosed pavilions designed by architect Victor Baltard and built between 1851 and 1872. It was a fixture of Parisian life for almost a century, but by the 1960s it had become obsolete, and the market moved elsewhere. All but one of the pavilions were destroyed, and an underground market called the Forum des Halles was built. The remaining pavilion was classified a historical monument and moved to Nogent-sur-Marne, where it is now known as the Pavillon Baltard and hosts public events. The overall size of Les Halles in its heyday can be imagined when you realize that this pavilion alone covers 2,700 square meters and can accommodate up to 2,000 guests for events. The postcard below offers a glimpse at what some of the vendors inside the pavilions were selling a century ago. (To see a selection of other postcard views, go here.) Note the detritus littering the floor on this postcard view and be grateful for modern sanitation standards!

Interior of one of the pavilions at Les Halles, Paris, about 1910.

Interior of one of the pavilions at Les Halles, Paris, about 1910.

Though Americans can’t match the Old World for length of historical timelines, there may be no indoor market more steeped in history than Faneuil Hall Marketplace in Boston, Massachusetts. This market could be described as a campus, since it encompasses four market buildings in one location. Faneuil Hall, a gift to the city from a wealthy merchant in 1742, served not only as a marketplace for foodstuffs but as a marketplace for ideas, as leaders of the American Revolution gave speeches here that helped spark the eventual uprising. Adjacent buildings, including the Quincy Market (the 1820s Greek Revival building shown on the circa-1905 postcards below), were constructed later, on land reclaimed from Boston Harbor. The Quincy Market building alone covers 27,000 square feet. (Notice that prominent “ad placement” was as popular in 1905 as is it today.)

Quincy Market, Boston, Massachusetts, ca 1905

Quincy Market, Boston, Massachusetts, ca 1905

Quincy Market, Boston, Massachusetts, ca 1905

Quincy Market, Boston, Massachusetts, ca 1905 (but not mailed until 1936)

To the east of the Faneuil Hall market complex were the great wharves along Boston’s waterfront, which unloaded cargo from around the world (see a 1902 map of the area here). Tons of food were imported and exported through these wharves. You can imagine the odor and waste that resulted, thus giving this area its nickname: “The Dump.” The postcard below shows the district’s Clinton Market (lengthwise across the center of the card). Behind it, in the top right of the photo, may be seen the multicolored slanted rooftop of the Mercantile Wharf, which was located along the waterfront when it was built in 1857 but receded as part of Boston Harbor was filled in. It was saved from demolition in the 1970s and now houses shops and residences.

Clinton Market, with Mercatile Wharf building in background, ca 1910

Clinton Market, with Mercantile Wharf building in background, ca 1910

A marketplace with a history almost as old as Faneuil Hall’s is the City Market in Savannah, Georgia. Located in one of the original city squares laid out by James Edward Oglethorpe, founder of the Colony of Georgia, in 1733, the site began as an open-air market. A description of the market from the website of the site’s current occupant shows that it was a hub of activity for the city: “Farmers and fishermen brought to market such wares as scuppernongs, pigeon peas and fresh seafood of every description. Horses pulled wagons brimming with rabbit tobacco, watermelon and okra. Farriers shod horses and barbers trimmed hair. The market was Savannah’s social and commercial center of life.” Between 1755 and 1954, it occupied a series of buildings (the first two destroyed by fire) culminating in the building shown below, a large brick Romanesque style structure built in 1872. The destruction of this building in 1954 to make way for a parking garage galvanized a group of Savannah women into action to save other historic structures in their city. And in 1985, the square on which the City Market once stood, Ellis Square, was reclaimed when the parking garage was moved underground and warehouses around the perimeter were renovated into shops and residences.

City Market, Ellis Square, Savannah, Georgia, ca 1915

City Market, Ellis Square, Savannah, Georgia, ca 1915

The Market Square in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, was laid out for that purpose back in 1785. Generous setbacks for produce wagons were mandated along Market Street—which was already quite grandly planned at 80 feet wide—where it intersected with Second Street. The postcard below, which dates from about 1910, is captioned “Market Square in 1860,” but details in the photo lead me to believe that the date inscribed in the lower right corner, 1874, is more correct. The city leaders decided at some point that the perimeter of the square was not sufficient to accommodate all of the vendors, so they built wooden structures in the center of the square to house some of them. As you can see by the tracks running down Market Street, the market was easily accessible by streetcar. Most of the structures shown in this photo have long since disappeared, but Market Square is still used as a venue for concerts.

Market buildings in Market Square, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania

Market buildings in Market Square, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania

The Chippewa or Washington Street Market in Buffalo, New York, has a long history, as well. This city-owned market was established in 1856, and by the time it fell victim to 1960s urban renewal efforts, it had grown to accommodate more than 400 vendors, many of them catering to the various immigrant groups that made up the city’s population. At one time, it could boast of being the largest market west of the Hudson River. Streetcar lines led Buffalo’s shoppers straight to its doors. In the large brick building shown on the right of this postcard, shoppers could choose from among the wares of the city’s finest butchers. Booths for vendors of dairy and produce circled the building. Surrounding the block were booths for locally made nonfood items. All of this makes it sound remarkably like a modern shopping mall, but—as was the case with other city markets—supermarkets, suburban sprawl, and the automobile culture contributed to its demise. The site is currently a parking lot. For more about the history of this market, click here; for more photos and a story about one of the longtime vendors, click the photo below.

Washington Street or Chippewa Market, Buffalo, Erie County, New York, ca 1910

Washington Street or Chippewa Market, Buffalo, Erie County, New York, ca 1910

According to the San Antonio Conservation Society, the Market Square area of San Antonio, Texas, was the site of a public market since the 1880s. The elaborate Victorian structure shown on the postcard below housed the market from about 1900 to about 1937. It was designed by renowned English-born architect Alfred Giles, who also designed many other public buildings in Texas and Mexico. Each of the building’s two floors were 278 feet long and 72 feet wide. The ground level was a marketplace for farm produce, and the upper level served as a public auditorium, convention center, and armory. By the 1930s, part of the lower level was used as a municipal parking garage (see a 1931 photo here). The market must have suffered a fire or succumbed to the Great Depression, because by 1938 it had been replaced by a Southwestern style Art Deco building built with funding from the federal government. The 1938 market building, on West Commerce Street across from Milam Square, is still used today as a marketplace called El Mercado. The Farmers’ Market, Produce Row, and El Mercado combine to make Market Square a popular shopping destination for tourists and residents.

City Market Building, San Antonio, Texas, designed by Alfred Giles, as it appeared in 1905, several years after it was built.

City Market Building, San Antonio, Texas, designed by Alfred Giles, as it appeared in 1905, several years after it was built.

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April 30th, 2012
To Market, To Market

nancy-80x80Each generation rediscovers good things from earlier generations and gives them a new twist. Urban farmers’ markets are one of those good things. A century ago, most cities had at least one market, and many had dedicated “market houses.” A half-century ago, however, consumers were persuaded to believe that such markets were hopelessly old-fashioned and that shiny new chain supermarkets were superior. Today, more and more shoppers are rejecting the supermarket model and once again embracing their local food producers. Maybe cities will support their efforts by rededicating some of the indoor infrastructure these markets once occupied.

To celebrate the annual opening of our local Emmaus Farmers’ Market (est. 2003) this Sunday, I thought I would share some postcards from my collection showing open-air city markets from the beginning of the 20th century. Some of these markets are still operating. Click on any of the images for links to modern markets at these (or nearby) locations.

Some cities dedicated the center of town to a green market at least one day a week. The Easton Farmers’ Market, on “The Circle” in downtown Easton, Pennsylvania—still in operation—bills itself as the longest-running open-air farmers’ market in the United States, dating to 1752. This view is from about a century ago:

The Easton Farmers' Market in downtown Easton, Pennsylvania, bills itself as the longest-running open-air farmers' market in the United States, dating to 1752. This view is from about a century ago.

Easton, Northampton County, Pennsylvania

Another view of the Easton Farmers' Market, ca 1905.

Another view of the Easton Farmers' Market, ca 1905

As a legacy of this bygone era, many American towns have large, wide streets named “Market Street.” This 1905 postcard from Williamsport, Pennsylvania, shows why these streets were so wide; the wagons that farmers used to transport their goods to market were rather large, taking up a good portion of the street:

Many American towns have large, wide streets named "Market Street." This 1905 postcard from Williamsport, Pennsylvania, shows why: The wagons farmers used to transport their goods to market were rather large, taking up a good portion of the street.

Market Street in Williamsport, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, on a market day in 1905

Although it’s no longer on Market Street, the Williamsport Growers Market carries on this tradition today.

WilliamsportFM1

Another view of market day in Williamsport ca 1905

Scranton, Pennsylvania, was a railroad hub for the Northeast, and judging by the large volume of produce the farmers were offering on the postcard below, it was a hub for wholesale produce buyers, as well. In the 1940s, a group of Scranton-area farmers purchased a piece of land from the city for a permanent market location. Known as the Cooperative Farmers Market of Scranton, it offers 40 stands under cover, with many other amenities. It is celebrating its 73rd season in 2012.

ScrantonFM

Scranton, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania

Major cities also hosted markets, as can be seen on this postcard from Chicago. The Windy City and its suburbs now boast more than 100 markets.

Market day on South Water Street in Chicago, Illinois, ca 1905

Market day on South Water Street in Chicago, Illinois, ca 1905

Some of the most famous big-city markets were located on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Many of the “stands” (so called because the vendors stood behind their carts) were operated by recent Eastern European immigrants. Below is an image of the market on Manhattan’s Hester Street, looking west along the north side of the street from the building at the corner of Hester and Clinton Streets (since demolished), ca 1901. The unsanitary conditions shown here were a major impetus for the hygienic-market movement later in the century. In 2010, a market called the Hester Street Fair—with a decidedly more upscale clientele—was established and will celebrate its third year this year.

Hester Street on Manhattan’s Lower East Side circa 1905, showing market vendors.

Hester Street on Manhattan’s Lower East Side circa 1905, showing market vendors.

The pushcart vendors on the Lower East Side were primarily Jewish and Italian. The 1905 view below shows some of the Jewish vendors on Essex Street. Many city residents thought these markets were a nuisance and health hazard; the streets crowded with pushcarts were also hard for emergency vehicles to navigate. Prior to the 1939 New York World’s Fair, Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia led an effort to displace the pushcart vendors, which he regarded as an embarrassment to the city, and move them into new, city-owned indoor markets where sanitation could be better managed. One such market is the Essex Street Market at the corner of Essex and Delancey Streets. It is one of only three of LaGuardia’s eight original city markets to survive. Click on the link above to see what’s happening at the market today; click on the photo below to see some historical images of Essex Street vendors.

Essex Street farmers' market on Manhattan’s Lower East Side in 1905

Essex Street farmers' market on Manhattan’s Lower East Side in 1905

Of course, these immigrants were merely carrying on traditions they had brought with them from the Old Country. European cities, towns, and villages had their own markets. One of the oldest is the market at Les Halle in Paris, France, which dates to 1137 (yes, that’s almost 900 years!):

Market at Les Halles, Paris, France, ca 1910

Market at Les Halles, Paris, France, ca 1910

On a less grand scale, smaller towns and villages had markets in the public square, flanked by the town hall and parish church. One such village was Chateau-Thierry, in the Picardy Region of France. At the turn of the 20th century, it had about 7,000 inhabitants. Their market took place in front of the Protestant church and town hall:

Market day in Chateau-Thierry, France, about 1910

Market day in Chateau-Thierry, France, about 1925

A modern photograph taken at the same location shows that the site is still used for a public market (though, judging from the photo, it is a flea market and not a green market).

Open-air markets were certainly not limited to Europe or North America. Here is a card showing vendors in or near Saigon, Vietnam, when it was still part of the French colony called Cochinchine. This photo may have been taken at the market now known as the Ben Thành Market.

Open-air market in or near Saigon, Cochinchine (Vietname)

Open-air market in or near Saigon, Cochinchine (Vietnam)

And finally, our four-footed friends are not about to let humans have all of the fun. Here are some feline market-goers doing their shopping on a German postcard ca 1910.

CatFM

Shrimp for 10¢ a pound? Meow!

Stay tuned: Next week, I’ll be showing images of covered stalls and market houses.

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April 12th, 2012
Save the Forsythias!

nancy-80x80On behalf of forsythias everywhere, allow me to make one humble plea: Stop butchering us!

We love space. Lots and lots of space. A space 12 feet across would not be too large. When you visualize the ideal forsythia, you should think of a cascading shower of golden fireworks shooting towards the sky and arching elegantly back to earth. Not a cube. Not a sphere. Not a champagne-cocktail glass. We’re free spirits!

"Help! Someone has tried to make us into a cube! (But some of our branches are making a break for it!)"

"Help! Someone has tried to make me into a cube! (But some of my branches are making a break for it!)"

So when you’re planting a forsythia bush, choose a space we can be happy in. If you need a shrub that will be happy while hemmed into a 2-foot space between the foundation and the sidewalk, we’d rather you chose a boxwood or some other plant that doesn’t mind being manicured.

"Think of the flowers we could have if we hadn't been trimmed into this shape!"

"Think of the flowers we could have if we hadn't been trimmed into this shape!"

"We're feeling claustrophobic!"

"We're feeling claustrophobic!"

"You knew the electric meters were here when you planted us. So..."

"You knew the electric meters were here when you planted me. So..."

Once you’ve found our ideal spot, in full sun and well-drained soil, we won’t ask for much from you. Just a little compost now and then.

If we get a little out of bounds, here’s how to keep us looking pretty:

After we bloom in spring, give us a pruning. Remove any dead branches, and any that are rubbing against each other. Then, instead of shearing the tips of our branches all over, cut back some of the old growth to about 4 inches from the ground. If we need heavier pruning, this is the best time to do it, as we will recover quickly. Wait too long, and we won’t have time to produce the flower buds that will become next year’s blooms. Pruning us in the heat of summer will just make us stress out, and pruning in fall and winter may remove some of our buds, so we’ll give you fewer flowers in spring.

If we’ve become old and woody, you don’t need to give up on us. Cut us all the way back to the ground, and we will surprise you by rejuvenating ourselves within a few years. If you can’t bring yourself to do that, take down one-third of our branches to the ground every year for 3 years. We’ll soon look like an entirely new shrub!

"We love sun and space! Yay!"

"I love sun and space! Yay!"

"Give us land, lots of land, under starry skies above..."

"Give me land, lots of land, under starry skies above..."

Wishing you a golden spring 2013,

Forsythe A. Bush

As told to Nancy Rutman

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February 2nd, 2012
Happy Groundhog Day!

nancy-80x80

Pennsylvania’s most famous prognosticating rodent, Punxsutawney Phil, today predicted six more weeks of winter. Phil and his cousins have been helping meteorologists since at least 1886, but the tradition of using animals to predict when spring will come is much older, dating back to pre-Christian Europe. This day marks the height of European winter, when farmers would begin anxiously scanning the environment for signs that spring was on its way. In Europe, hedgehogs or badgers were often enlisted as forecasters. When Pennsylvania German farmers brought the custom with them to America in the 18th century, they nominated the groundhog as the most intelligent candidate for the job.

In 1934, Groundhog Day took on new significance, since that was the date of the first Fersommlung (gathering) of the Grundsow Lodge Nummer Ains on da Lechaw (Groundhog Lodge Number One on the Lehigh [River]), in Allentown, Pennsylvania. It was the first of 17 lodges founded by Pennsylvania Germans as a way of preserving their language and culture. At their annual gatherings, which continue today, members pay a penalty for every English word that is spoken. Poems, songs, and skits are performed in the Pennsylvania German language. Lots and lots of food is consumed.

Here are two program covers from Grundsow Lodge gatherings that I found in my archives. Enjoy!

Cover of program for the fifth annual meeting of Grundsow Lodge Number One in Allentown, Pennsylvania, February 3, 1938. The holiday coincides with the Christian feast day of Candlemas, during which a candlelight procession occurred—hence the candle in this drawing.

Cover of program for the fifth annual meeting of Grundsow Lodge Number One in Allentown, Pennsylvania, February 3, 1938. The holiday coincides with the Christian feast day of Candlemas, during which a candlelight procession occurred—hence the candle in this drawing.

Cover of the program for the 12th annual Grundsow Lodge gathering in 1948 (a few years were skipped during WWII). The drawing is by Bud Tamblyn, an editorial cartoonist for the Allentown Morning Call newspaper.

Cover of the program for the 12th annual Grundsow Lodge gathering in 1948 (it would have been the 15th, if WWII had not intervened). The drawing is by William Richard “Bud” Tamblyn, a nationally renowned editorial cartoonist for the Allentown Morning Call newspaper.

The insignia of Grundsow Lodge #1 as of 1948

The insignia of Grundsow Lodge #1 as of 1948

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December 22nd, 2011
Proof of the Pudding

nancy-80x80Last year, I had the pleasure of seeing Gerald Charles Dickens, the great-grandson of the author Charles Dickens, present a one-man performance of A Christmas Carol. Gerald clearly resembles his namesake, and his facial expressions as he brought to life the different characters in the story were priceless. But my favorite part of the evening was when Gerald embodied Mrs. Cratchit as she prepared to serve the Christmas pudding to the assembled Cratchit family. Here’s the condensed version of the scene used by Charles Dickens himself in his dramatic readings:

“Mrs. Cratchit left the room alone, —too nervous to bear witnesses, — to take the pudding up, and bring it in.

“Suppose it should not be done enough! Suppose it should break in turning out! Suppose somebody should have got over the wall of the back yard, and stolen it, while they were merry with the goose, — a supposition at which the two young Cratchits became livid! All sorts of horrors were supposed.

“Hallo! A great deal of steam! The pudding was out of the copper. A smell like a washing-day! That was the cloth. A smell like an eating-house and a pastry-cook’s next door to each other with a laundress’s next door to that! That was the pudding! In half a minute Mrs. Cratchit entered, — flushed but smiling proudly, — with the pudding, like a speckled cannon-ball, so hard and firm, blazing in half of half a quartern of ignited brandy, and bedight with Christmas holly stuck into the top.

“O, a wonderful pudding! Bob Cratchit said, and calmly too, that he regarded it as the greatest success achieved by Mrs. Cratchit since their marriage. Mrs. Cratchit said that now the weight was off her mind, she would confess she had had her doubts about the quantity of flour. Everybody had something to say about it, but nobody said or thought it was at all a small pudding for a large family. Any Cratchit would have blushed to hint at such a thing.”

And many a modern British family would not think of celebrating Christmas without a traditional pudding. But this pudding is not at all like what we think of as pudding in the United States—a creamy smooth, relatively bland desert. “Pudding” is the generic term for “dessert” in the U.K. Christmas pudding, though, is a specific dessert with a rich history. Though I confess I have never tasted this treat, from the typical ingredients used, I can conclude that it must be sweet, spicy, dense, and chewy. Last week, I blogged about mincemeat and its mystery ingredients. Christmas pudding (a.k.a. plum pudding because it originally contained plums) seems to be a recombination of many of the same ingredients—suet, dried fruits, candied fruit peel, and spices—held together with flour, breadcrumbs, and eggs. The mixture is formed into balls, wrapped in cloth, and aged for a few weeks, during which time it is basted with brandy or rum. It is then steamed or boiled to soften the texture. Just before serving, the dining room is darkened and the pudding doused with flaming liquor before being ceremoniously presented to appreciative oohs and ahs.

The plum pudding trade cards in my collection, which date to the 1870s, suggest that the role of carrying the pudding to the table in households of means was typically performed by a servant. Below, the king instructs his serving-man where to place the steaming dessert:

A pudding fit for a king

A pudding fit for a king

On this card, the bearer resembles a liveried footman:

Presenting the pudding

Presenting the pudding

The woman below appears to be a cook, with cheeks flushed from standing over a steaming copper pot:

A steamy job

A steamy job

Sometimes the task was assigned to a child, as on this trade card, which depicts either a servant boy or a wealthy child in period clothing:

Servant or heir?

Servant or heir?

The most nerve-wracking choice would be to entrust the flaming pudding to two small children in the family. Don’t try this at home, kids:

A recipe for singed eyebrows

A recipe for singed eyebrows

If you are not inclined to light your food on fire this holiday, you’ll find a simplified, flame-free version of a classic English Christmas pudding here (along with sources for a few harder-to-find ingredients). But why not try the real deal instead? The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

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