December 15th, 2011
What Is Mincemeat, Anyway?

nancy-80x80Mince pie is one of those pastries I grew up eating but probably never would have eaten if given my choice of any pastry on the planet. At some point in my childhood, my mother must have come to the conclusion that her family all shared that opinion, because from then on, pumpkin and pecan were the only pies she made for Thanksgiving and Christmas.

I always wondered what was in mince pie, though. Was there actually meat in mincemeat? I’m not a vegetarian, but mixing meat and fruit just isn’t my kind of tasty. I’m pretty sure my mother used canned mincemeat—most likely None Such brand. So I checked out the None Such label in the grocery store recently and found that it does indeed contain beef, far down on the ingredients list.

Turns out the None Such brand has been around for at least 100 years. I have a trade card advertising the brand from about 1895, when it was still owned by Merrell & Soule (it was bought by Borden in the 1920s):

None Such Condensed Mince Meat trade card (front)

None Such Condensed Mince Meat trade card (front)

None Such Condensed Mince Meat trade card (back)

None Such Condensed Mince Meat trade card (back)

As you can see, Victorian-era cooks were as fond of convenience as we are. “You make the crust, we do the rest” would still make a very good marketing slogan. Mince pie is among the most labor-intensive of pies. Traditionally, it includes several kinds of citrus peel and juice (grating, squeezing), minced meat, fat, and apples (chopping), spices (more grating), and reduced cider (boiling).

Most old recipes would give a cardiologist nightmares—they frequently contain great gobs of suet besides the meat. In addition, there were copious amounts of sugars in the form of fruit, apple cider, and brown sugar. The idea was to achieve just the right balance of fattiness, sweetness, and tartness. But making and preserving mincemeat did serve a useful purpose in the days before refrigeration: The sugars in the fruit and the antibacterial properties of the spices acted as preservatives, giving people alternatives to smoked and salted meats.

Cliff Doerkson of the Chicago Reader unearthed two vintage newspaper recipes for mince pie and gives his hilarious history of mincemeat and his attempts to recreate the recipes here. His article almost makes we want to make a mince pie this Christmas. Almost.

I think I prefer just looking at the beautiful mincemeat trade cards from my collection:

Armour's Condensed Mince Meat trade card (front)

Armour's Condensed Mince Meat trade card (front). The impish characters shown on this card provide an interesting social commentary: From their dress and activity ("mining" for "gold"), they are associated with the different immigrant groups who were working in actual gold mines at the time (from left, Irish, Dutch, German, and Chinese, overseen by the boss in his top hat). They may be the creation of illustrator Palmer Cox, whose Brownie characters were very popular at the turn of the century.

Armour's Condensed Mince Meat trade card (back). Who wouldn't want "palate tickling" mince meat?

Armour’s Condensed Mince Meat trade card (back). Who wouldn’t want “palate tickling” mince meat?

Swett & Card Peerless Home Made Mince Pie Meat trade card. Swett & Card Manufacturing Company was established in 1889 and was abandoned by 1894 "owing to sharp competition and other causes," according to a history of Orleans County, New York. That puts an unusually precise date range on this advertisement.

Swett & Card’s Peerless Home Made Mince Pie Meat trade card. Swett & Card Manufacturing Company was established in 1889 and was abandoned by 1894 "owing to sharp competition and other causes," according to a history of Orleans County, New York, where the company was based. That puts an unusually precise date range on this advertisement, and also tells us that mincemeat was once a competitive enterprise.

Surely one of the largest commercial producers of mincemeat in the Victorian era was Atmore & Son, which billed itself as the “oldest house in the trade,” having been established in 1842. Its average daily sales “during the season” numbered 12 tons! Yes, that’s daily. Here’s a selection of their ads:

Atmore's Mince Meat and Genuine English Plum Pudding trade cards, circa 1870s

Atmore’s Mince Meat and Genuine English Plum Pudding trade cards, circa 1870s

My favorite mincemeat ephemera is this little booklet in the shape of a pie, advertising New England Condensed Mince Meat, made by T. E. Dougherty of Chicago, Illinois, and Port Byron, New York. “Mince pie properly made is delicious, wholesome and nutritious,” it states. “Mince pie poorly made is unpalatable, unwholesome and indigestible. Just the difference between high grade and low grade mince meat. New England Condensed Mince Meat is strictly high grade, prepared from the choicest fruits, beef, spices, sugar and pure boiled cider. All fruits washed, carefully picked over by hand and all raisin seeds removed [gritty mincemeat was a recognized problem]. Absolutely no adulterations [also a recognized problem]. It was first made in 1882…improved from year to year, and in 1895 made under an entirely new formula, in which is used a new combination of dainty and delicious fruits, found in no other condensed mince meat. It is now perfect, requiring no additions whatever except water, and makes larger and richer pies than ever; also delicious fruit cakes and puddings.”

Cover of "Fairy's Pie," booklet advertising New England Condensed Mince Meat circa 1895

Cover of “Fairy's Pie,” booklet advertising Dougherty’s New England Condensed Mince Meat circa 1895

Inside the booklet is a children’s story in which Mother Goose, taking pity on the poor children who have been lured from their homes by the Pied Piper and have nothing to eat, swoops down on her broom and scoops them up, promising to feed them whatever they want most of all. She asks them what that would be. The children all shout together, “Something that has every goody in the whole, wide world in a single bite.” At first, Mother Goose is stumped. Does such a food exist? Then the answer comes to her, and she aims her broomstick for New England. They sail through the open pantry window of a New England home, where she deposits the children and disappears in a flash.

“And what do you think they saw?” asks the writer. “And what did they smell? and what did they taste? Surely every goody in the world in a single bite.

“For they scrambled around a real New England mince pie and a beautiful pair of fairy hands and a bright silver knife cut the pie just to fit each waiting mouth. It was fairly bursting with spices and sweets and fruits and meats, and they ate, and they ate, and they ate and then they began to grow. And what do you think they grew into? Why, just what all good children grow into who eat mince pie made from Dougherty’s New England Condensed Mince meat: splendid American citizens.”

“All the goodys of the whole, wide world in a single bite.”

“Every goody in the whole, wide world in a single bite.”

The next few pages of the booklet go on to describe the thrill of eating fresh mince pies and the quality of the ingredients used in Dougherty’s brand of mincemeat:

A bit of New England history

A bit of New England history

“Monarch of pastry”

“Monarch of pastry”

Fruits and meats

Fruits and meats

Exotic spices

Exotic spices

Dougherty’s—accept no “cheap imitations”!

Dougherty’s—accept no “cheap imitations”!

Maybe I will try making a mince pie after all!

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November 21st, 2011
Thankful for the Harvest

nancy-80x80Of the many things I have to be grateful for this Thanksgiving, never having to worry about being hungry is a big one. Oh, I don’t mean hungry as in, “it’s been 5 hours since breakfast and my stomach is growling”; I mean hungry as in “it’s been 5 days since I’ve had anything but a handful of rice to last the day.”

Working at Organic Gardening has some unique perks, and one is the plentiful supply of fresh produce from our test garden during the growing season. On those days when I volunteer to help our test garden manager, Doug Hall, with the weeding and harvesting, the vegetables always taste even sweeter. Hard work always sharpens the appetite. Now that the garden is heading into its dormant season, I miss checking out the “harvest table” every Wednesday to see what Doug has grown that week.

I have a lot of 100-year-old Thanksgiving greeting postcards in my collection, and many of them feature scenes of the harvest. People were just as grateful for their daily bread a century ago. Or even 4 centuries ago—the first Thanksgiving, celebrated jointly by the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag people (without whose agricultural advice they would have starved), was a celebration of the harvest. Often my old postcards feature somewhat fantasized turn-of-the-century interpretations of what Pilgrims and Indians would have looked like.

Here’s a harvest of Thanksgiving postcards for you to enjoy. Hope everyone has a happy, healthy Thanksgiving!

This Pilgrim-y lass has a harvest of corn. She was drawn by artist May L. Farini in 1910.

This Pilgrim-y lass has a harvest of corn. She was drawn by artist May L. Farini in 1910.

A lovely sunbonnet lady with a sheaf of wheat, painted by the artist Samuel L. Schmucker in 1911.

A lovely sunbonnet lady with a sheaf of wheat, painted by the artist Samuel Loren Schmucker about 1911.

A pilgrim-y woman in prayerful pose in the pumpkin patch, after the corn harvest. Also by Schmucker.

A pilgrim-y woman in prayerful pose in the pumpkin patch, after the corn harvest. Also by Schmucker, 1911.

A Pilgrim-y couple saying thanks for their crop of corn, fruits, and vegetables.

A Pilgrim-y couple saying thanks for their crop of corn, fruits, and vegetables.

A country couple harvest apples on this card printed in Germany about 1908.

A German farm couple harvests apples on this card from about 1908.

An American boy produces his own apple crop, circa 1910.

An American boy produces his own apple crop, circa 1910.

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November 14th, 2011
Healthy Food, Healthy People

nancy-80x80In my last post, I expressed some smugness about Rodale’s pioneering status in the healthy-food movement. I felt a little guilty about it at the time, but I feel vindicated now. While rummaging through our files searching for essays by J. I. Rodale, I came across a folder labeled “Rodale’s Food Center.” Inside it were a few brochures and a vintage article from Organic Gardening about the Food Center established at Rodale Press (now Rodale Inc.) back in 1979. That’s 1979—when Saddam Hussein became president of Iran, Sony introduced the Walkman, and the McDonald’s Happy Meal was rolled out nationwide. Microwave ovens were the latest craze, expanding from 1 percent of American households in 1971 to 25 percent by 1986. The organization Slow Food would not be founded for another 10 years.

But Rodale was already exploring the relationship between our food and our health. The Rodale Food Center had high ambitions when it was founded:

“From harvest to table,” the brochure reads, “we’re dedicated to improving the way people eat. We’re working to create the best in new crops, recipes, and food products, and to find the best in prepared foods and kitchen equipment. And we help the rest of Rodale Press make that information available to the widest possible audience—to consumers and industry, science and government alike.”

The Rodale Food Center

The Rodale Food Center, circa 1979

The building that housed the Food Center was itself innovative. At the time, adaptive reuse of older buildings was not common, but Rodale repurposed several buildings in Emmaus—including several former silk mills—as part of its philosophy of regeneration. The former Thaddeus Stevens elementary school was remodeled to become the Food Center’s first home (shown above).

To launch its new venture, Rodale chose chef Tom Ney, who had attended of the Culinary Institute of America. He became the director of the Test Kitchen and Food Services (which serves food for Rodale employees). Home economist and nutritionist Anita Hirsch served as the Test Kitchen supervisor. Their photos are featured prominently in the brochure:

FCbrochure01

Tom Ney and Anita Hirsch

“Harvest to table” is a common phrase today, but back then, this was a revolutionary concept. The Food Center worked with researchers at the Rodale Research Center who were developing highly nutritious but relatively unknown crops, such as amaranth, testing different varieties, recipes, and cooking methods to see which would appeal to American consumers. Rodale employees were the taste-testers. (Having had the experience of tasting amaranth, I can say there’s a reason it is seldom on the menu in American restaurants.) This relationship would be discontinued when the Research Center separated from Rodale Press and became the nonprofit now known as the Rodale Institute.

The brochure goes on to say, “We also create many of the recipes we publish because we prefer to use natural rather than overly-processed ingredients and, we’d rather do without certain ingredients like sugar, salt, and white flour in favor of fresh fruits, herbs and whole grains.” Again, these concepts are common in 2011 but were not in 1979. And Rodale continues its commitment to testing and refining recipes to make them tastier and more healthful. Many of the original recipes created by Organic Gardening authors have been tested by JoAnn Brader, current Test Kitchen manager, and her staff, and tasted by our staff at the magazine. They’re often adjusted and improved before publication. The Test Kitchen is also frequently called on to do recipe nutrient analysis for Rodale magazines and cookbooks, which allows editors to substitute healthier ingredients if a recipe is found to fall short of our health standards.

Plans are in the works for a new Test Kitchen facility, occupying part of one of the repurposed silk mills Rodale has renovated. Stay tuned for updates.

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October 24th, 2011
Food Day 2011

nancy-80x80Today is Food Day, a brainchild of the Center for Science in the Public Interest to advocate for “healthy, affordable food produced in a sustainable, humane way.” Other organizations and individuals have embraced this day to hold informational events and social gatherings large and small.

While I certainly applaud this effort, I must confess to a certain amount of smugness as I say, “Glad you finally caught up to us!” The folks at Rodale Inc. (the parent company of Organic Gardening) have championed this message for the past 60-odd years. It started with J.I. Rodale, our founding editor, who brought the agricultural theories of Sir Albert Howard to the United States and was the first to use the term “organic” to describe it. J.I.’s son Robert built on this legacy, expanding the company’s agricultural publishing into Russia and establishing the Farming Systems Trial, the longest-running side-by-side U.S. study comparing conventional chemical agriculture with organic methods. Robert’s daughter Maria, now chairman and CEO of the company, recently published Organic Manifesto, laying out the modern arguments for why consumers should “demand organic.”

But none of us can afford to be smug, can we? Our agricultural system is (still) broken. On the one hand, at least in America, it is highly productive and produces surpluses almost every year. On the other hand, the food often does not make it to the people who need it, and waste is built in to the system. Often the resources we rely on for life itself—soil, air, and water—are severely damaged by this “productivity.”

So those of us who have toiled in the trenches of the organic movement for lo these many years welcome the young blood that efforts like Food Day bring into it.

FoodDay_logoStacked

For more information about Food Day, click here.

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September 26th, 2011
Brown-Bagged

FN_Healthy-Eats_bro#2578AF6We’re teaming up with Food Network’s Healthy Eats and fellow food bloggers to host a Brown-Bag Challenge, a month-long initiative to eat consciously and save money by packing a lunch each weekday through the month of September instead of eating out. Join us here and share what you’re eating on Facebook or Twitter with the hashtag #brownbag.

Sigh.

If I were a movie critic, I would give my last week’s efforts at brown-bagging only about two stars out of five. I did a lot of planning and had enough ingredients to make lunches for the whole week, but got distracted and busy with other activities in the evening and didn’t get to put them together. So I managed to bring lunch only once this week.

Tuesday’s Lunch

• Campbell’s Healthy Request Mexican-Style Chicken Tortilla Soup
• Santa Claus melon (the last of this melon—it supplied a lot of servings!)
• 2 slices Irish wheaten bread from McCarthy’s Tea Room & Restaurant at Donegal Square in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
• Banana

DSC00378

By the time I got my food all nicely styled for this photo, the soup was cold. And again I realized that I was missing parts of the color wheel. I had greens for supper.

The brown bread from McCarthy’s is extra-special. It’s made from an authentic Irish recipe. A loaf thrown at someone’s head could kill him. Imagine a bowl of oatmeal so thick you could form it into a loaf—that’s how dense it is. But with wheat instead of oats. Yum!

Inspired by my shame over this week’s crash-and-burn, next week’s menu has more homemade food made from fresh and local ingredients. And I’m already off to a better start, since I’ve packed today’s lunch already. Wish me luck!






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